Suzuki-L: Selected Postings

Suzuki Piano School:
Support from Contemporary Music Learning Research

Jeanne Beegle
Spring 1998

A Thesis Presented to the
Faculty of California State University, Dominguez Hills
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts in Humanities: Music

Shin´ichi Suzuki (1898-1998), Japanese music educator, believed that musical talent is not an inborn gift, but an ability that anyone can develop with the "right education." Suzuki was not a scientist or a researcher, and did not support his ideas with organized studies. However, contemporary research on music learning supports his teaching philosophy and methodology.

The attached Bibliography is from a 1998 Master's Thesis reporting on music learning research organized to prove that the Suzuki method is pedagogically sound. The basis of the discussion is Suzuki's own list of the conditions necessary for ability development: "1) the earlier period; 2) better environment; 3) the better teaching method; 4) more training; and 5) a superior instructor" (Talent Education for Young Children, 1969, 20). In addition to reporting on the research, the thesis also includes a discussion of my own field work, which consists of an interview survey carried out to enhance the knowledge gained from research.

The Bibliography includes books, academic and scientific journals, popular press reports, newspapers, Suzuki literature, and miscellaneous items.


The purpose of this thesis is to give evidence in support of the Suzuki teaching approach, with emphasis on the Suzuki Piano School. The author examines the main features of the method, as outlined by Shinichi Suzuki, and presents background information and research findings to show that it is pedagogically sound.

Methods employed include reporting on research in the field of music learning, personal observation, and interview.

Specific topics covered include talent development, the learning process, brain research, music for the very young, and the music learning sequence. The author reports on personal experience with Suzuki and traditional methods. Also included are interviews with parents and educators. Research evidence is then compared with the features of Suzuki teaching.

Based on analysis of the data obtained by the above methods, the author concludes that the teaching principles and techniques employed by Suzuki educators are pedagogically sound and supported by contemporary music learning research.

Selected Bibliography

Allman, William F. "The Musical Brain." US News US News & World Report World Report 11 June 1990: 56+.

Anderson, Richard. "Piano Without Preservatives: The Role of the Brain in Teaching Piano." The Piano Quarterly 36 (Jan. 1988): 58-59.

Andress, Barbara L. Music in Early Childhood. Washington, DC: Music Educators National Conference, 1973.

- - - , and Linda Miller Walker, eds. Readings in Early Childhood Music Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1992.

Barzun, Jacques. "Is Music Unspeakable?" American Scholar Spring 1996: 193+.

Basic Concepts in Music Education. The Fifty-seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Bauman, Susan C. In Search of the Japanese Spirit in Talent Education. Summy-Birchard, 1994.

Baxter, Steven G. "Beginners Must Have a Concept of Tone Quality." School Musician June-July 1981: 12-14.

Begley, Sharon. "How to Build a Baby's Brain." Newsweek Spring-Summer 1997: 28-32.

- - - . "Redefining Intelligence." Newsweek 14 Nov. 1983: 123.

- - - . "Your Child's Brain." Newsweek 19 Feb. 1996: 55-62.

Bigler, Carole, and Valerie Lloyd-Watts. Studying Suzuki Piano: More than Music. Summy-Birchard, 1979.

Blakeslee, Sandra. "At last we can see inside the brain." New York Times 1 June 1993: A1+.

- - - . "The Mystery of Music: How It Works in the Brain." New York Times 16 May 1995, late ed.: C1+.

- - - . "Scientists Find Place on Left Side of Brain Where Perfect Pitch is Heard." New York Times 3 Feb. 1995, late ed.: A16.

- - - . "Studies Show Talking With Infants Shapes Basis of Ability to Think." New York Times 17 Apr. 1997: B21.

Bloom, Benjamin S., ed. Developing Talent In Young People. New York: Ballantine, 1985.

- - - . Stability and Change in Human Characteristics. New York: Wiley, 1964.

Boettcher, Wendy S., Sabrina S. Hahn, and Gordon L. Shaw. "Mathematics and Music: A Search for Insight into Higher Brain Function." Leonardo Music Journal 4 (1994): 53-58.

Bower, Bruce. "Infants tune up to music's core qualities." Science News 7 Sep. 1996: 151-52.

- - - . "Tuning up young brains." Science News 27 Aug. 1994: 143.

Bradley, Ian L. "Repetition as a Factor in the Development of Musical Preferences." Journal of Research in Music Education 19 (1971): 195-98.

Brand, M. "Relationship between home environment and selected musical attributes of second-grade children." Journal of Research in Music Education 34 (Feb. 1986): 111-20.

Browne, Malcolm C. "Mozart Makes the Brain Hum, A Study Finds." New York Times 14 Oct. 1993, late ed.: B9.

Burke, Linda Barney. "Arts Education: Enhancing the Intellect Through the Arts." New York Times 20 Oct. 1996, late ed., sec. 2: 4.

Campbell, Don G. Introduction to the Musical Brain. St. Louis: Magnamusic-Baton, 1983.

Cassidy, Anne. "The Power of Music." Working Mother May 1996: 47-51.

Chertock, Sanford L. "Effect of Music On Cooperative Problem Solving by Children." Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol. 39, 1974: 986.

Chroninger, Ruby. Teach Your Kids About Music. New York: Walker & Co., 1994.

Church, Michael. "Strong Arm Tactics." BBC Music Magazine Mar. 1997: 22-24.

Cohen, Wendy, and Ellen Wohlstadter. "The Impact of Music on Babies." Wet Set Gazette Feb. 1986: 7.

Colin, Diane. "The Value of Early Music Education." The Path (Kindermusikâ Teachers Association) Spring-Summer 1994: 12-13.

Cowley, Geoffrey. "The Language Explosion." Newsweek Spring-Summer 1997: 16-22.

Critchley, Macdonald, and R. A. Henson. Music and the Brain: Studies in the Neurology of Music. London: William Heinemann Medical Board, 1980.

Critchton, Laura. "Music for Everyone?" British Journal of Music Education 9.3 (1992): 211-15.

Crouch, Madeleine. "Does Piano Study Help Children in Other Aspects of School Study?" Keyboard Companion Summer 1994: 30.

Deliège, Irène, and John Sloboda, eds. Musical Beginnings: Origins and Development of Musical Competence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Dobrzynski, Judith. "Tuning Kids in to Haydn and Bach." Business Week 12 Sep. 1994: 100.

Elliott, Laura. "The Power of Music." The Washingtonian Dec. 1995: 72+.

Engeler, Amy. "How Much Does Your Baby Know?" Parents Dec. 1997: 76-78.

Feierabend, John. "Music in Early Childhood" in Barbara L. Andress and Linda Miller Walker, Readings in Early Childhood Music Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1992.

- - - . "Music and Intelligence in the Early Years." American Suzuki Journal Fall 1996: 66-70.

Fifield, Bill, and Janet Aikele. Using the Piano to Help Raise Your Family. Idaho Falls, ID: W. M. Fifield, 1992.

Fox, Donna Brink. "Music Classes for Infants and Toddlers." American Music Teacher 40.6 (June-July 1991): 20+.

- - - . "Music, Development, and the Young Child." Music Educators Journal 77.5 (Jan. 1991): 42-46.

Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic, 1983.

- - - . "Do Babies Sing a Universal Song?" in Barbara L. Andress and Linda Miller Walker, Readings in Early Childhood Music Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1992.

- - - . Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic, 1993.

- - - . Art, Mind and Brain: A Cognitive Approach to Creativity. New York: Basic, 1982.

Gardner, Kay. "Music as Medicine." Ms. July-Aug. 1991: 74-75.

- - - . Sounding the Inner Landscape: Music as Medicine. Stonington, ME: Caduceus, 1990.

Glover, Jo. "Understanding Children's Musical Understanding." British Journal of Music Education 7.3 (1990): 257-62.

Gordon, Edwin E. "Audiation, Imitation and Notation: Musical Thought and Thought About Music." American Music Teacher Apr.-May 1989: 15+.

- - - . Guiding Your Child's Musical Development. Chicago: GIA, 1993.

- - - . Learning Sequences and Patterns in Music. Chicago: GIA, 1977.

- - - . Learning Sequences in Music: Skill, Content, and Patterns. Chicago: GIA, 1988.

- - - . A Music Learning Theory for Newborn and Young Children. Chicago: GIA, 1990.

- - - . "Musical Child Abuse: Musical Aptitude versus Musical Achievement." American Music Teacher Apr.-May 1988: 14-16.

- - - . "Sequencing Music Skills and Content." American Music Teacher Oct.-Nov. 1991: 22+.

- - - . "A Study of the Efficacy of General Intelligence and Musical Aptitude in Predicting Achievement in Music." Council of Research in Music Educational Journal 13 (1968): 40-45.

- - - . "Taking into Account Musical Aptitude Differences among Beginning Instrumental Students." American Educational Research Journal 7.1 (1970): 41-53.

- - - , Beth M. Bolton, Wendy K. Hicks, and Cynthia C. Taggart. The Early Childhood Music Curriculum. Chicago: GIA, 1993.

Graziano, Amy B., Gordon L. Shaw, and Eric L. Wright. "Music Training Enhances Spatial-Temporal Reasoning in Young Children: Towards Educational Experiments." Invited article to be published in Early Childhood Connections (1997).

Greenberg, M. "Research in early childhood education: A survey with recommendations." Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education 45 (1976): 1-20.

Hancock, Lynnell. "Why Do Schools Flunk Biology?" Newsweek 19 Feb. 1996: 58-59.

Hargrove, William. "Come Blow Your Own Horn." Newsweek 14 Dec. 1992: 15.

Harvey, Arthur W. "Is Brain Research Relevant for Music Education?" British Journal of Music Education 3.2 (1986): 175-79.

Hassler, M., N. Birbaumer, and A. Feil. "Musical Talent and Visual-Spatial Abilities: A Longitudinal Study." Psychology of Music 13 (1985): 99-113.

Healy, Jane M. Your Child's Growing Mind. New York: Doubleday, 1987.

Herrmann, Ned. "The Creative Brain." NASSP Bulletin Sep. 1982: 31-48.

Heyge, Lorna Lutz, and Linda Swears. Kindermusikâ Beginnings Teacher's Guide: Music for Me. Walton; NY: Music Resources International, 1990.

Hodges, Donald A. "Why Are We Musical?" Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin 99 (1989): 7-22.

- - - , ed. Handbook of Music Psychology. Lawrence, KS: National Association for Music Therapy, 1980.

Hoffman, Stevie. "Growing and Learning in the Early Childhood Years" in Barbara L. Andress and Linda Miller Walker, Readings in Early Childhood Music Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1992.

Holden, Constance. "Smart Music." Science 11 Nov. 1994: 968-69.

Howe, Michael J. A., and John A. Sloboda. "Young Musicians' Accounts of Significant Influences in their Early Lives: 1. The Family and Musical Background." British Journal of Music Education 8.1 (1991): 39-52.

Ibuka, Masaru. Kindergarten Is Too Late! New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977.

Jamieson, David. "Music for Your Head." L. A. Parent Magazine Feb. 1995: 44+.

Jaques-Dalcroze, Émile. Rhythm, Music, and Education. Great Britain: Hazell Watson and Viney Ltd., 1921.

Jellison, Judith A., and Nancy L. Miller. "Recall of Digit and Word Sequences by Musicians and Nonmusicians as a Function of Spoken or Sung Input and Task." Journal of Music Therapy 19.4 (1982): 194-209.

Jordan-DeCarbo, Joyce. "Gordon: A Sound-to-Symbol Approach to Learning Music." Music Educators Journal Feb. 1986: 38-41.

Kantrowitz, Barbara. "Off to a Good Start: Why the first three years are so crucial to a child's development." Newsweek Spring-Summer 1997: 6-9.

Kataoka, Haruko. Trans. Haruko Sakakibara and Karen Hagberg. Sensibility and Education. Salt Lake City, UT: Piano Basics, Inc., 1993.

- - - . My Thoughts on Piano Technique. Trans. Kyoko Selden. Princeton, NJ: Suzuki Method International, 1988.

- - - . Thoughts on the Suzuki Piano School: A Suzuki Method Symposium. Trans. Kyoko Selden. Secaucus, NJ: Suzuki Method International, 1985.

Keim, Katherine. "Why So Young? The Growing Argument for Music Learning Experiences for Very Young Children." The Path (Kindermusikâ Teachers Association) Spring-Summer 1994: 18-19.

Keith, Margaret. The Piano is What I Want to Play--So, I Must Practice Every Day. El Reno, OK: Heritage Color Press, 1993.

Kindy, Kimberly. "UCI finds piano lessons give kids another forte." Orange County Register 28 Feb. 1997: 1+.

Kingsley, Howard L. The Nature and Conditions of Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1946.

Klanderman, Natalie Z. "Critique: The Development of Auditory Discrimination and Performance of Pitch, Rhythm, and Melody in Preschool Children." Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin 68 (1981): 83-85.

Knox, Richard. "Noted: Certain music can enhance brain functions." Boston Globe 14 Aug. 1994: 1+.

Kochevitsky, George. The Art of Piano Playing: A Scientific Approach. Summy-Birchard, 1967.

Koppelman, Doris. Introducing Suzuki Piano. San Diego, CA: Dichter Press, 1987.

Kulman, Linda. "The Prescription for Smart Kids." US News US News & World Report World Report 10 Mar. 1997: 10.

Laczo, Zoltan. "Nonmusical Outcomes of Music Education: Influence on Intelligence?" Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin 8.5 (1985): 109-118.

Landers, Ray. The Talent Education School of Shinichi Suzuki--An Analysis. 4th ed. Chicago: Daniel Press, 1987.

Landis, Beth, and Polly Carder. The Eclectic Curriculum in American Music Education: Contributions of Dalcroze, Kodály and Orff. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1972.

"The Latest on How the Brain Works." NEA Today. Apr. 1997: 17+.

Lawrence, Sidney J., and Nadia Dachinger. "Factors Relating to Carryover of Music Training into Adult Life." Journal of Research in Music Education 15 (1976): 23-31.

Lehman, Paul R. "Federal Programs in Support of Music." Music Educators Journal Sept. 1968: 51+.

Lewis, Anne. "Learning Our Lessons About Early Learning." Phi Delta Kappan Apr. 1997: 591-92.

Manning, Anita. "Piano lessons may teach kids to reason, too." USA Today 28 Feb. 1997: 3D.

Mark, Michael, and Charles L. Gary. A History of American Music Education. New York: Schirmer, 1992.

Maugh, Thomas H. "Study Finds Piano Lessons Boost Youths' Reasoning." Los Angeles Times 28 Feb. 1997: A3+.

McDonald, Dorothy T., and Gene M. Simons. Musical Growth and Development: Birth Through Six. New York: Schirmer, 1989.

- - - . "Awakening the Artist: Music for Young Children" in Barbara L. Andress and Linda Miller Walker, Readings in Early Childhood Music Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1992.

Mead, Margaret. "Music is a Human Need." Music Educators Journal Oct. 1972: 24-29.

Michel, Paul. "The Optimum Development of Musical Abilities in the First Years of Life." Psychology of Music 1.2 (June 1973): 14-20.

Mills, Elizabeth, ed. In the Suzuki Style: A Manual for Raising Musical Consciousness in Children. Berkeley, CA: Diablo, 1974.

- - - , and Therese Cecile Murphy, eds. The Suzuki Concept. Berkeley, CA: Diablo, 1973.

Moog, Helmut. "The Development of Musical Experience in Children of Pre-School Age." Psychology of Music 4.2 (1976): 38-45.

Motluk, Alison. "Can Mozart make maths add up?" New Scientist 15 Mar. 1997: 17.

"Mozart Makes You Smarter." N. pag. Online. Internet. 20 Oct. 1995.

"Musical brains pitch to the left." Science News 11 Feb. 1995: 881.

"Music Lessons for Your Two-Year-Old?" Awake! 22 Feb. 1980: 25-28.

"Music of the Hemispheres." Discover Mar. 1994: 15.

Nash, Madeleine. "Fertile Minds." Time 3 Feb. 1997: 48-56.

National Society for the Study of Education. Basic Concepts in Music Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Nichols, Mark. "Smart Beginnings." Maclean's 29 Aug. 1994: 41+.

Nowak, Rachel. "Brain center linked to perfect pitch." Science 3 Feb. 1995: 616-18.

Ostrander, Sheila, and Lynn Schroeder. Superlearning 2000. New York: Delacorte, 1994.

- - - . "Superlearning: The Miraculous Mind/Body Approach." New Age June 1983: 26+.

Peery, J. Craig, Irene Weiss Peery, and Thomas W. Draper, eds. Music and Child Development. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.

- - - . "Effects of Exposure to Classical Music on the Musical Preferences of Preschool Children." Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. New York City, Sep. 1979.

Peggie, Andrew. "Making a Match." Music Teacher Feb. 1991: 9.

"Perfect Pitch." Dateline NBC. Transcript. Interview by Marcia Brandwin. WNBC, New York. 1 Sep. 1994: 13-16.

Peters, G. David, and Robert F. Miller. Music Teaching and Learning. New York: Schirmer Books, 1982.

Phillips, Douglas. "An Investigation of the Relationship between Musicality and Intelligence." Psychology of Music 4.2 (1976): 16-31.

Phillips, William. "The Smartest Thing You Can Do for Your Baby." Parenting Aug. 1997: 107-8.

Powell, Mary Craig. Focus on Suzuki Piano. Summy-Birchard, 1988.

Pyle, Amy. "New State Task Force Will Try to Put Arts Education Back in Public Schools." Los Angeles Times 29 Mar. 1997: A18.

Randall, H. S. "Choosing the First Instrument." Music Educators Journal Fall 1986: B8-10.

Rauscher, Frances. "Can Music Make Us More Intelligent?" Billboard 15 Oct. 1994: 10.

- - - , Gordon L. Shaw, and Katherine N. Ky. "Listening to Mozart enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: towards a neurophysiological basis." Neuroscience Letters 185 (1995): 44-47.

- - - , Gordon L. Shaw, Linda J. Levine, Eric L. Wright, Wendy R. Dennis, and Robert L. Newcomb. "Music training causes long-term enhancement of preschool children's spatial-temporal reasoning." Neurological Research Feb. 1997: 2-8.

Rayl, A. J. S. "Striking a Neural Chord." Omni Winter 1995: 14.

Révész, G. An Introduction to the Psychology of Music. London: Longmans Green, 1953.

- - - . The Psychology of Musical Prodigy. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1925.

Richards, Cynthia V. How to Get Your Child to Practice … Without Resorting to Violence!! Provo, UT: Advance Publications, 1985.

Robb, Margaret. The Dynamics of Motor-Skill Acquisition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972.

Robertson, James H. "Principles for General Music in Secondary Schools." Dissertation U of Illinois, 1958.

Robinson, Linda. "Music Activities Stimulate Language Development--Research Findings Reported." The Path (Kindermusik® Teachers Association) Spring-Summer 1994: 14-15.

Saari, Laura. "The Sound of Learning." Orange County Register 6 Feb. 1997: 1+.

Scott, Carol Rogel. "How Children Grow¾Musically." Music Educators Journal Oct. 1989: 28-31.

- - - . "The Preschool Child and Music." American Music Teacher June-July 1991: 12+.

- - - . "Progress Report on Music Concept Formation in Preschoolers: Phase II" Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin 66 (1981): 74-79.

Scott, Laurie. "Attention and Perseverance Behaviors of Preschool Children Enrolled in Suzuki Violin Lessons and Other Activities." Journal of Research in Music Education 40 (1992): 225-35.

"7 Keys to Learning." Parents Feb. 1994: 118+.

Sharman, Elaine. "The Impact of Music on the Learning of Young Children." Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin 66 (1981): 80+.

Shehan, Patricia. "Major Approaches to Music Education: An Account of Method." Music Educators Journal Feb. 1986: 26-31.

Sheppard, Leslie. "The Power of Music." Music Teacher June 1986: 35.

Shreeve, James. "Music of the Hemispheres." Discover Oct. 1996: 90-100.

Shuter-Dyson, Rosamund. "Elizabeth Ann Bedsole: A Descriptive Study of the Musical Abilities of Three- and Four-Year-Old Children." Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin 104 (1990): 84-87.

- - - . "Music in the environment: effects on the musical development of the child." International Review of Applied Psychology 28.2 (1979): 127-33.

- - - , and Clive Gabriel. The Psychology of Musical Ability. 2nd ed. New York: Methuen, 1981.

Silvern, Drew. "More than a footnote." San Diego Union-Tribune 23 Oct. 1995: A-1+.

Simons, Gene. "Early Childhood Musical Development: A Survey of Selected Research." Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin 86 (1986): 36-52.

Sims, Wendy, ed. Strategies for Teaching Prekindergarten Music. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1995.

Singer, Robert N. The Psychomotor Domain. Washington: Gryphon House, 1972.

Sosniak, Lauren A. "From Tyro to Virtuoso: A Long-term Commitment to Learning." The Piano Quarterly 150 (1990): 19+.

Sprunger, Edmund. "The 'No's of Learning." American Suzuki Journal Nov. 1992: 50.

Starr, William and Constance. To Learn with Love: A Companion for Suzuki Parents. Summy-Birchard, 1983.

Stipp, David. "Parents Take Note: Musical Training May Stimulate Mind." Wall Street Journal 3 Feb. 1995: B10.

Strobel, Gabrielle. "Tracing earliest neurons' migration." Science News 13 Nov. 1993: 308.

Suzuki, Shin´ichi. Ability Development from Age Zero. Summy-Birchard, 1969.

- - - . Nurtured by Love. Summy-Birchard, 1983.

- - - . "On Character Formation." Talent Education Journal 17 (1984): 29-40.

- - - . Talent Education for Young Children. Trans. Kyoko Selden. New Albany, IN: World-Wide, 1969.

- - - . Man and Talent. Trans. Kyoko Selden. Ann Arbor, MI: Shar Products Co., 1990.

Tanner, Don R. "Sharon Marguerite Lenz: A Case Study of the Musical Abilities of Three- and Four-Year-Old Children." Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin 65 (1981): 42-46.

Temmerman, Nita. "Philosophical Foundations." British Journal of Music Education 8 (1991): 149-59.

Trehub, Sandra E. "Infants perception of musical patterns." Perception and Psychophysics 41 (1987): 635-41.

- - - , and B. A. Schneider, eds. Auditory Development in Infancy. New York: Plenum Press, 1985.

Twiggs, Carol. "National Learning Infrastructure, Part 1." Educom Review July-Aug. 1994: n. pag. Online. Internet. 20 October 1995.

Uszler, Marienne. "Musical Giftedness." American Music Teacher Feb.-Mar. 1992: 20+.

- - - . "Music and Child Development." Piano Quarterly 140 (1988): 54-55.

Walters, Darrel L., and Cynthia Crump Taggart, eds. Readings in Music Learning Theory. Chicago: GIA, 1989.

Webster, Peter R. "The Preschool Child and Creative Thinking." American Music Teacher June-July 1991: 16-19.

Webster's New World Dictionary of American English. 3rd College Ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988.

Weinberger, Norman M., ed. MuSICA Research Notes Spring 1994: 1+.

Wilkin, Phyllis E. "A comparison of fetal and newborn responses to music and sound stimuli, with and without daily exposure to a specific piece of music." Paper submitted for the 15th International Research Seminar, Miami, FL, and the XXI International Conference, Tampa, FL, 1994.

Williams, Helen. "The Value of Music to the Deaf." British Journal of Music Education 6.1 (1989): 81-98.

Wilson, Frank R. "Music as Basic Schooling for the Brain." Music Educators Journal May 1985: 39-42.

Wingert, Pat, and Anne Underwood. "Hey¾Look Out, World, Here I Come." Newsweek Spring-Summer 1997: 12-15.

Wolff, Karen L. "The Nonmusical Outcomes of Music Education: A Review of the Literature." Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin 55 (1978): 1-27.

Yelin, Joy. Movement That Fits: Dalcroze Eurhythmics and the Suzuki Method. Summy-Birchard, 1990.

Young, Pamela. "Chords for Kids: Great composers come to life for children." Maclean's 30 Sep. 1991: 59+.

Zdzinski, Stephen F. "Relationships Among Parental Involvement, Music Aptitude, and Musical Achievement of Instrumental Music Students." Journal of Research in Music Education 40 (1992): 114-25.

Zentz, Donald. "Music Learning: Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts." Music Educators Journal Apr. 1992: 33-36.

Zimny, George H., and Edward W. Weidenfeller. "Effects of Music Upon GSR of Children." Child Development 33 (1962): 891-96.

This bibliography is expanded from a Suzuki-L posting, 28 February 2003.

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First Online Edition: 16 March 2003
Last Revised: 25 March 2003