Test #2 study questions:

On Socialization

  •  What is socialization? Can socialization occur in an isolation from other human beings?
  •  What impact does the isolation have on children (i.e., "feral children")?
  •  What impact institutionalization has on children?
  •  What impact the lack of a contact has on isolated animals?
  •  What is self-consciousness of an individual? How do we know that an individual is socialized into society?
  •  Explain what did Cooley mean by "looking glass self" metaphor? What did Cooley try to explain with the help of this metaphor?
  •  What/who are according to Mead "I," "Me," and "generalized other"? How according to Mead self develops in the process "role talking"?
  •  What is, according to Freud, the basis of human development?
  •  How according to Mead "I," "Me," and "generalized other" interact in the development of self? What are the stages that a child goes through in a process of personality development?
  •  According to Freud, human personality is made up of three components: ID, EGO and SUPEREGO. Define these three elements and explain how they interrelate in regulating human behavior.
  •  How and why is socialization of children differs between working class and middle class families?
  •  What impact does the daycare have on socialization of children?
  •  What impact does a peer group have on socialization of boys and girls? What characteristic are valued among peer groups of boys and girls?
  •  What is re-socialization? When and why does it occur?
  •  Define "the total institution" and provide an example. What is degradation ceremony and when it is enacted?
  •  What is life course socialization and when and why does it occur? Describe at least two examples of life course socialization.
  •  When and why adolescence became a distinct time of human life? When and why older years (65 and older) are developing into a new and distinct period in human life?

On Deviance

  •  Define crime and deviance from sociological perspective. Explain, the concept of relativity of deviance (i.e., dependence of deviance on culture and norms) and provide an example.
  •  Explain the difference between psychological and sociological explanations of crime and deviance.
  •  Which crimes - street or white collar - cause more financial damage to a society?
  •  What is the ratio between violent crimes and crimes against property?
  •  How types and rates of crimes in traditional societies differ from types and rates of crimes in contemporary societies? What factors account for change in types and rates of crime committed as societies were undergoing transformation from rural/agricultural to urban/industrialized?
  •  How crime rates had changed since the early 1990s? Did they decline or increase in severity and the number? What were the major reasons that account for the decline in crimes during the last decade?
  •  How did the number of people in the prisons had changed since early 1980s? Individuals of which gender, age, ethnic/racial groups are most prone to commit crimes?
  •  Briefly describe how the following theories explain deviance/crime: differential association (people learn to deviate through associating with others who deviate from the norms), control (everyone is drawn to commit deviant acts, but most of us conform because of an effective system of inner and outer controls), and labeling theory (acts are deviant only because people label them as such).
  •  Briefly discuss how conflict theorists would explain deviance (the group in power ensures definitions of deviance are those of their own; the law is an instrument of oppression and exploitation; marginal working class have little income and are desperate, they commit highly visible property crimes; it punishes crimes of the poor and divert their own criminal activities away from this punitive system).
  •  How do functionalist theorists explain deviance? How crime can be functional to a society (affirms norms; social unity; social change)? Explain what is illegitimate opportunity structure (inconsistency between goals and means) and how does it differ according to social class?
  •  What is the prison-industrial complex? Why did prison population in the US continues to grow when crime rates are down?
  •  Explain what is meant by the medicalization of deviance. Why sociologists are critical regarding the interpretation of  deviance as a medical problem?