Emotion (Chapter 11)

Physiological Signatures
(Ekman et al., 1983)

Emotion Channels

      Channels

   auditory (prosody)

   visual (e.g., facial affect/expression)

   lexical (e.g., reading emotional words)

Motor and Sensory Information

      Motor

   anterior cerebral systems

   frontal lobes

      Sensory

   posterior cerebrum

   parietal, occipital temporal

Emotion

I.    Expression of Emotion

   “frontal systems?”

II.   Perception of Emotion

   “posterior systems???”

III.  Experience of Emotion

   “???????????

IV.  Current issues

 

 

I.  Expression of Emotion

A.  Facial Expression

1.  Facial Action Coding System (Ekman et al., 1981)

    a.  Corrugator muscles

          frown

    b.  Zygomatic muscles

          smile

A.  Facial Expression

2.  Facial asymmetries

    a.  Observation

A.  Facial Expression

2.  Facial asymmetries

    b.  Chimeric faces

A.  Facial Expression

2.  Facial asymmetries

    b.  Chimeric faces

          1.  Left side more expressive than right

                for posed and spontaneous emotions

                (Borod, 1993).

          2.  Symmetry for positive emotions.

Electroencephalogram

A.  Facial Expression

3.  Case study 1:

    “Alice the alien hand”

    a.  Right frontal-          parietal stroke 

    b.  Fixed facial              expression of           anger

(Everhart & Harrison, 1996)

A.  Facial Expression

3.  Case study 2:

    a.  Bilateral frontal strokes

    b.  Right lower face:  smiling

    c.  Left lower face:  frowning

 

B.  Affective prosody
(emotional prosody)

1.  Affective prosody

    a.  Prosody:  tone (pitch, stress, duration)

    b.  Affective prosody:  emotional context

          right-hemisphere dependent

    c.  Propositional prosody:  lexical or semantic

          “What’s in the road ahead?”

          “What’s in the road, a head?” 

B.  Affective prosody
(emotional prosody)

2.  Assessment

    a.  Neutral sentences

    b.  Repeat in happy, sad, angry

    c.  RH damage speak in monotone

                (Tucker et al., 1977)

    d.  Aprosodia (Ross & Mesulam, 1979) 

B.  Affective prosody
(emotional prosody)

2.  Case study: 

    “Alice the alien hand”

    a.  “Monotone” to “angry”

 

II.  Perception of Emotion

A.  Facial Affect Perception

1.  RH brain damage (Banich, 1997)

    a.  Discrimination

    b.  Remembering emotional faces

    c.  Matching emotional face to           spoken word

    d.  Cartoon face

 

A.  Facial Affect Perception

A.  Facial Affect Perception

2.  Chimeric faces (Heller & Levy, 1981)

    a.  Half face smiling and other half neutral

    b.  Faces judged as happier when appears in       LVF.

A.  Facial Affect Perception

3.  Divided visual field studies

 

3.  Facial Affect Perception
Divided Visual Field Technique

      Divided Visual Field

      RVF is directed to left visual cortex

      LVF is directed to right visual cortex

      Unilateral and bilateral presentation

 

Divided Visual Field con’t

      Tachistoscopic presentation

      perceptual asymmetries

      200ms

      reaction time

      accuracy

 

Divided Visual Field con’t

 a.  RH (LVF) is more accurate and faster at         detecting emotional faces.

 b.  LH (RVF) advantage for words

A.  Facial Affect Perception

3.  Divided Visual Field

    c.  Ley & Bryden         (1979)

 

A.  Facial Affect Perception

LVF advantage for

most extreme

expressions

A.  Facial Affect Perception

4.  Assessment

    1.  Florida Affect Battery

          a.  Name affect 

 

 

 

 

B.  Emotional Prosody

1.  Dichotic listening (Ley & Bryden, 1982)

    A.  Left-ear advantage for judging           emotion

    B.  LE advantage for discriminating             nonspeech sounds (shrieking,         laughter, crying)

 

 

B.  Emotional Prosody

2.  Brain damage

    A.  Sensory Aprosodias

   

 

 

B.  Emotional Prosody

3.  Assessment

    a.  Florida Affect Battery

          1.  Conflicting prosody

                congruent

                incongruent

 

 

C.  LH contributions

1.  Emotional semantics

    “Sadness is the likely response to a death.”

 

 

 

III.  Experience of emotion

 

A.  Brain damage (Gainotti, 1972)

1.  Left Hemisphere:  catastrophic reaction

2.  Right Hemisphere:  euphoric-indifference

B.  EEG studies (Fox & Davidson, 1980)

1.  Left Hemisphere:  positive, cheerful affect

2.  Right Hemisphere:  negative, depressed          affect

C.  Wada Testing
(intracarotid sodium amobarbital test)

      Left Hemisphere

    catastrophic reaction

 

      Right Hemisphere

    euphoria/indifference

D.  Emotional disorders and brain damage

1.  Left frontal lobe and depression (Lipsey et al., 1983)

D.  Emotional disorders and brain damage

2.  (Robinson et al., 1984)

E.  Case Study

1.  39 year-old right-handed male

    a.  Hostile, angry affect

    b.  anosognosia 

F.  Regional Brain Activity: 
Heller (1993)

IV.  Current Issues

A.  Sex-related differences

B.  Experience of Emotion

C.  Handedness

A.  Sex-related differences

 

 

Sex - Related Differences in
 Facial Affect Processing

 

 

 

 

 

Accuracy Scores

 

 

 

 

 

                Summary of Findings

1)  No sex-related differences were found on task

     performance (reaction time and accuracy).

                                                   

2)  Sex-related differences were observed for ERP

     amplitudes to tone probes (Peak 3, N2 - P2; N2)

 

                Boys:  Right > Left

                Girls:  Left > Right

 

 

B.  Experience of Emotion

1.  Anxiety and facial affect perception

2.  Depression and emotional prosody

1.  Anxiety and Facial Affect Perception
Divided Visual Field Technique

      Divided Visual Field

      RVF is directed to left visual cortex

      LVF is directed to right visual cortex

      Unilateral and bilateral presentation

 

Divided Visual Field con’t

      Tachistoscopic presentation

      perceptual asymmetries

      200ms

      reaction time

      accuracy

 

Divided Visual Field con’t

      RH (LVF) is more accurate and faster at detecting emotional faces.

      These findings sometimes vary as a function of mood state, handedness, and gender.

      LH (RVF) advantage for words

Facial Affect Perception in Anxious and Nonanxious Men

 

2.  Depression and emotional prosody
(
Emerson, Harrison, & Everhart, 1999)

Depressed boys

Nondepressed boys

Conflicting emotional prosody subtest from Florida Affect Battery

 

 

C. Handedness

“Forced-choice” reaction time paradigm

    1. Happy      no difference

    2. Angry       no difference

    3. Neutral

                Right-handed:  equal

                Left-handed

                         a.  RVF - angry

                         b.  LVF - happy

 

Emotion

I.    Expression of Emotion

   “frontal systems?”

II.   Perception of Emotion

   “posterior systems???”

III.  Experience of Emotion

   “???????????”

What did I leave out?

V.  Subcortical emotional systems

          A.  Limbic System (MacLean, 1952)

                Hypothalamus

                Hippocampus

                Mamillary Bodies

                Anterior Thalamus

                Cingulate cortex

V.  Subcortical Emotional Systems

B.  Amygdala

     1.  Kluver-Bucy Syndrome (1937)

     2.  Anterior thalamus - amygdala (fast)

       “instinctive” (LeDoux, 1993)

     3.  Cortico-amygdala (slow) 

       (LeDoux, 1993)

Generalized Cognitive Disorders
Chapter 14

I.  Closed Head Injury

II.  Dementing Diseases

III.  Demyelinating Diseases

I.  Closed Head Injury

A.  Mechanisms

          1.  Acceleration - deceleration injury

            a.  twisting and shearing (long axons)

            b.  focal damage

                coup and contrecoup

                orbitofrontal and temporal

          2.  Edema

 

I.  Closed Head Injury

      Ventricular enlargement

      Volume loss

I.  Closed Head Injury

B.  Assessment

          1.  Consciousness

            a.  Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

                severe           < 8      (35 - 50% death)

                moderate      9 - 12

                mild        13-15

            

           

         

 

I.  Closed Head Injury

B.  Assessment

          1.  Neuropsych deficits

            a.  Initial:  disoriented

                           amnesia (antero and retro)

                           disinhibited, agitated           

           

         

I.  Closed Head Injury

B.  Assessment

          1.  Neuropsych deficits

            b.  Long-term

                executive function deficits

                personality change

                disinhibition, impulsive      

           

         

I.  Closed Head Injury

C.  Mild Head Injury

          change in consciousness 2 - 30 minutes

      1.  Cognition (concentration and memory)

      2.  Somatic symptoms

      3.  Emotional symptoms

                (depression, anxiety)     

           

         

I.  Closed Head Injury

C.  Mild Head Injury

       4.  Predictors (Salcido & Costich, 1992)

             

           

         

II.  Dementias

A.  Cortical dementias

    1.  Alzheimer’s disease (DAT)

        a.  Onset

                early onset < 65

                late onset > 65

 

           

II.  Dementias

A.  Cortical dementias

    1.  Alzheimer’s disease (DAT)

        a.  diagnosis

                impaired memory plus:

          aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, executive         function

 

           

II.  Dementias

A.  Cortical dementias

    1.  Alzheimer’s disease (DAT)

        a.  diagnosis

                exclude all other causes

 

           

II.  Dementias

1.  Alzheimer’s disease (DAT)

    b.  Specific deficits

          amnesia

    grocery store naming versus word fluency

    procedural memory

          mot____

           

II.  Dementias

1.  Alzheimer’s disease (DAT)

    b.  Specific deficits

          visuospatial processing

          apraxia              

II.  Dementias

1.  Alzheimer’s disease (DAT)

    b.  Specific deficits

          personality change

          delusions (paranoia)

          hallucinations

           

II.  Dementias

1.  Alzheimer’s disease (DAT)

    c.  Neuropathology

          1.  Atrophy

          2.  Neurofibrillary tangles

          3.  Senile plaques

           

b.  Neuropathology

1.  atrophy

 

b.  Neuropathology

2.  Neurofibrillary tangles

    a.  Disrupts structure

b.  Neuropathology

3.  Senile (amyloid) plaques

    a.  Build-up of              proteins

    b.  Cell loss

II.  Dementias

A.  Cortical dementias

    1.  Alzheimer’s disease (DAT)

        d.  “Protective factors”

              1.  Formal education

 

           

II.  Dementias

A.  Cortical dementias

    2.  Pick’s Disease

        a.  changes in mood, social function

        b.  Empty speech

        c.  Later…..memory

        d.  Kluver-Bucy Syndrome   

 

           

II.  Dementias

A.  Cortical dementias

    2.  Pick’s Disease

        e.  Neuropathology   

 

           

e.  Neuropathology

      Frontal-temporal atrophy

      Pale, swollen neurons

      Clumps of fibers

    Pick’s Bodies

II.  Dementias

A.  Cortical dementias

    3.  Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

        a.  No known cause!

                Prions (infectious particles)

        b.  Mad cow disease

        c.  Cognitive decline is fast! (1 year)      

 

           

II.  Dementias

A.  Cortical dementias

    3.  Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

        d.  Prominent motor involvement

                discoordination, gait, involuntary                 movements

          e.  Spongiform encephalopathy    

 

           

II.  Dementias

B.  Subcortical dementias

    1.  Huntington’s disease (motor)

          a.  Amnesia

                1.  Temporal gradient

                2.  Recall versus recognition 

 

           

1.  Huntington’s disease

      Caudate atrophy

      enlarge ventricles

1.  Huntington’s disease

      Memory disorder

    compared to DAT

II.  Dementias

B.  Subcortical dementias

    2.  Parkinson’s disease (motor)

          recall versus recognition

          executive function 

 

           

II.  Dementias

C.  Mixed dementias

    1.  Vascular (multi-infarct) dementia

          recall versus recognition

    2.  AIDs dementia

   

 

           

 

III.  Demyelinating Diseases

A.  Demyelinating diseases

    1.  Multiple sclerosis

          recall versus recognition