(for 2nd. midterm, July 25thth 2003, Friday
What is consequentialism?
What is the general idea behind utilitarianism?
How do hedonistic utilitarianism, eudaimonistic utilitarianism, ideal utilitarianismand preference utilitarianismdifferfrom each other?
What is utility?
What is maximizing utility?
What are hedons and dolors?
What is supererogation?
Does utilitarianism allow for supererogatoryactions?
How is act utilitarianism formulated?
What are the objections that face act utilitarianism?
How is rule utilitarianism formulated?
What considerations are relevant for determining the group relative to which utilitarian calculations are to be made?
What are the issues that need to be taken into account in evaluating utilitarianism? (Hinman p.193-202)
What is the argument that claims that rule utilitarianism collapses to act utilitarianism?
What kind of ethics is an ethics of duty?
What does an ethics of duty say about the grocer, suicide and sympathy examples; how does this contrast with what other ethical theories would say about these cases?
What do the moral minimalism and moral alienation criticisms of duty ethics say?
How is acting out of duty different from following orders?
How is a categorical imperative distinguishedfrom a hypothetical imperative?
What is a maxim?
What are the two formulations of the categorical imperative?
How does one test for universalizability?
Can Kantian ethics deal adequately with exceptions?
What does it mean to say that someone is treated only as a means?
Does the second formulation of the categorical imperative cover a sufficiently wide range of moral circumstances?
What do some Kantians (e.g., Hill) say about self-respect?
What are rights, entitlements, claims, duties and responsibilities, and how are they interrelated?
Make sure that you are able to come up with reasonable answers to the discussion questions found at the end of the following readings (page numbers indicate where the questions can be found).
Singer (p. 278)
Williams (p. 282)
Locke (p. 346)