Some phrases consist of one steady flow without a clearly discernible break, real or implied; others are more clearly perceived in subdivisions. In any case, a complete phrase has the following:
REGULAR PHRASE: A four- or eight-measure unit; otherwise called an IRREGULAR PHRASE.
PHRASE MEMBER: A short melodic unit that comprises a portion of a phrase, usually contains several motives.
MOTIVE: Short melodic figure used as a constructional element, i.e., the smallest structure from which additional material may be generated. Usually a melodic or rhythmic idea of 2-8 notes. Must appear at least twice, though recurrances need not be exactly as in the original form.
INTERPOLATION: Occurs during a restatement of a phrase: Some material is interpolated between phrase members, i.e., when a motive from the first phrase member is repeated before the second phrase member is stated.
PHRASE EXTENSION: Occurs after a phrase's cadence, or as a result of an avoided cadence: When a some material is appended after a phrase's final phrase member, i.e., when a motive from the final phrase member is repeated before the phrase reaches its conclusive cadence., or when a phrase's cadence is repeated, prolonging the sense of closure of the phrase
REPETITION: A motive repeated literally, i.e., exactly as it originally appeared.
IMITATION: A motive repeated in a different voice.
TRANSPOSITION: A motive repeated starting on a different pitch than the original and follow its original contour.
REAL TRANSPOSITION: When the intervallic structure of the motive is maintained exactly.
TONAL TRANSPOSITION: When the basic intervallic structure of the motive is maintained, but the quality of the intervals may vary, i.e., a major third within the original motive becomes a minor third in the transposition of the motive.
SEQUENCE: two or more appearances of the motive, each at a different pitch level (transposed); must be at least two appearances of the motive, and these appearances must be adjacent.
DELETION: "Simplification" of a motive through deletion of notes from the original, i.e., two eigth notes reduced to one quarter note.
ORNAMENTATION/EMBELLISHMENT: Addition of notes to the original, i.e., quarter note becomes two eigths.
INTERVALLIC CHANGE: A basic interval within a motive is either Expanded or Contracted.Components of a Phrase: Motivic Development, contd.
INVERSION: When a motive is subject to a "horizontal mirror image" process, i.e., it is turned "upside down"; rising intervals become falling intervals, etc.
RETROGRADE: When a motive is subject to an "vertical mirror image" process, i.e., it is turned 'backwards"; the final interval becomes the first interval, etc.
AUGMENTATION: The durational value of each note in the motive is multiplied by the same amount, i.e., each note is twice as long as in the original.
DIMINUTION: The durational value of each note in the motive is divided by the same amount, i.e., each note is half as long as in the original.
FRAGMENTATION: When a motive is broken into smaller parts, each part playing a part separate from the other(s).
SYMMETRICAL PERIOD: A period whose antecedent and consequent phrases are of the same or similar length.
ASYMMETRICAL PERIOD: A period whose antecedent and consequent phrases are of different lengths.
PARALLEL PERIOD: A symmetrical period whose antecedent and consequent phrases are similar in content.
CONTRASTING PERIOD: A period whose antecedent and consequent phrases are dissimilar.
DOUBLE PERIOD: Similar to the grouping of an antecedent and a consequent phrase to form a period, but here two periods that take on the role of antecedent and consequent.
PHRASE GROUP: Three or more phrases, at least two of which are similar, only the last of which ends with a conclusive cadence. (Sometimes still referred to as a period, though not a two-phrase period.)
PHRASE LINK: A melodic/rhythmic device used to promote continuity between grouped phrases, further enhancing the perception that a period, phrase group or phrase chain has not yet reached its conclusion.
PHRASE ELISION: when the cadence of one phrase occurs simultaneously with the beginning of the next phrase.
The immediate goal of the phrase is its cadence, the chords that bring it to a close. An important characteristic of any cadence is its degree of finality, expressed in terms of relative strength. The greater the conviction of conclusiveness exhibited by a cadence, the stronger that cadence is considered to be. There are a number of factors involved with determinig the relative strength of a cadence:
AUTHENTIC CADENCE: Root motion from V-I. (Picardy Third uses I as final chord in minor key)
PLAGAL CADENCE: Root motion from IV-I.
PERFECT CADENCE: In authentice cadences, both chords are in root position and the tonic of the final chord is heard in the highest voice. In plagal cadences, the tonic of both chords is heard in the highest voice. If these condition are not met, the cadence is said to be imperfect.
FULL CADENCE: When the authentic cadence is enlarged by a dominant preparation chord, i.e., ii-V-I, IV-V-I, etc.
CADENTIAL ELABORATION: The delaying of one or more of the chords of the cadence through the introduction of nonharmonic tones which construct an intervening chord, i.e., I (64)-V-I.
HALF CADENCE (Semicadence): Requires continuation, i.e., the half cadence is not conclusive. Most commonly uses V as final chord.
PHRYGIAN CADENCE: a half cadence in a minor key, iv6-V.
DECEPTIVE CADENCE (Evasive Cadence): V or other dominant function chord (V7, viio, viio7, viio7) moving to any chord other than I or i.