Reform and Revolution


 I. The Reform Movement of 1898
  1. Kang Youwei (1858-1927)--(Southern Han Clique)
   a. 1895 candidate for jinshi "presented scholar"

   b. later author of Confucius as a Reformer

   c. advocated const. monarchy after Meiji model

   d. summoned before Emp. Guangxu June 16, 1898

   e. given post in Beijing to assist 1898 reforms

  2. Liang Qichao (1873-1929)--Southern Han Clique)
   a. student of Kang Youwei

   b. cofounded Qiangxue hui ("Society for the Study of National Strength")

   c. given post in Beijing to assist 1898 reforms

  3. Tan Sitong (1865-1898)--(Southern Han Clique)
   a. Renxue (Study of Benevolence) 

    i. denounced Confucianism

    ii. urged break from "entangling nets"

   b. praised Western legal and political systems 

   c. given post in Beijing to assist 1898 reforms

  4. Yan Fu (1853-1921)--outside Reform mainstream
   a. translated Thomas Huxley's Evolution and Ethics

   b. John Stuart Mill's On Liberty

   c. Herbert Spencer's Study of Sociology

   d. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations

  4. Reform Memorial of 1895--followed Sino-Japanese War

  5. Guangxu's "100 Days of Reform"--Emp. Meiji the ideal

   a. 110 imperial edicts in 103 Days

   b. Western school system 

   c. encourage free press, free speech, free assembly

   d. govt sponsorship of key industries

   e. simplification of imperial bureaucracy

   f. abolition of sinecures, Manchu allowances, etc

   g. send students abroad to learn from West

  6. Yuan Shikai's First Betrayal

  7. Sept. 19, 1898--Cixi put Guangxu under house arrest

   a. Kang Youwei fled to Hong Kong

   b. Liang Qichao fled to Japan

   c. Tan Sitong executed with "Six Martyrs of 1898"

II. Scramble for Concessions
 A. Germany---Shandong city of Qingdao

 B. Britain---Weihaiwei on northern Shandong for 25 yrs.

  a. 99 yr. lease on Kowloon (Hong Kong)

  b. concession to build 2800 miles of railroad

 C. Russia--25 yr lease of Port Arthur & Dalian (Liaodong)
  a. railroad rights from Dalian to Harbin

  b. Triple Intervention after Sino-Japanese War (1895)

 D. France--99 yr. lease of Guangzhou Bay
  a. nonalienation of land bordering Vietnam

  b. right to build railroad from Tongking to Kunming

 E. U.S.--"busy conquering the Philippines" (Vohra)
III. The Boxer Uprising 1898-1900
 A. Shandong Province--annual (1895-98) Natural Disasters 
  1. antiforeign, antimissionary riots frequent

  2. Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (Yihequan)

   a. 1898 "Overthrow Qing, Expell Foreigners"

   b. 1899 Cixi's support--"Protect Qing Expell Barb."

   c. June 1900 beseiged foreign legations in Beijing

   d. June-Aug. 1900 International War against Boxers

  3. Cixi, Guangxu, and Qing imperial court fled Beijing
 B. Boxer Protocol--accepted Dec. 27, 1900
  1. indemnity of $333 million over 30 yrs.

  2. Dagu Fortresses protecting Beijing destroyed 

  3. foreign troops in Beijing

  4. execute and/or dismiss antiforeign officials

  5. apologies to Germ. and Japan for murdered diplomats

 C. U.S. "Open Door" Notes
  1. issued by Sec. of State John Hay in Sept. 1899

  2. U.S. annexation of Hawaii, Pago Pago, Philippines

IV. Cixi's Reforms (1902-1908)--Vohra calls them "Nationalistic"
 A. Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) Treaty of Portsmouth
  1. Japanese expansion into Manchuria

  2. threat of expansion into China

 B. Military Reforms headed by Yuan Shikai
  1. Yuan's Beiyang Army became the national model

  2. Baoding Military Academy (Chiang Kaishek)

 C. Educational Reforms
  1. Western style school system (primary, middle, univ.)

  2. 1905 abolished traditional civil service exams

  3. increasingly students sent to Japan (and U.S.)

 D. Constitutional Reforms
  1. 1905 Cixi sent constitutional study mission abroad

  2. 1906 proclaimed her commitment to constitutionalism

  3. 1908 draft constitution (copy of Japanese) approved

  4. 1910 National Assembly to be elected

  5. 1916 Promulgation of Constitution and the Parliament