MacArthur and the American Occupation of Japan
I. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964)  
A. Early Military Career 1. West Point 1903--- tour of duty in Philippines 1903-06

2. observer in Russo-Japanese War 1904-05

3. WWI wounded--Superintendant of West Point 1919-22

4. tour of duty in Philippines 1922-27, 1928-1930
 

B. Chief of Staff of US Army 1930-35 (July 1932 "bonus army")   C. 1935-41 Military Advisor to Philippines & Commander of U.S. forces in Far East

D. Dec. 8, 1941 responsible for defense of Philippines
 

1. 6 hours after Pearl, Clark Field destroyed

2. Commander of Southwest Pacific theater of war

3. Oct. 1944 "Return" to Leyte
 

E. 1945 SCAP--(Sept. 2, 1945 USS Missouri)--Occupation

F. Far Eastern Commission (Pacific War Allies) based in D.C.
 

II. US Initial Post-Surrender Policy for Japan (Aug. 29, 1945)
  A. Demilitarization
  1. Jan 1946 "Imperial Rescript Renouncing Divinity"

2 Armed forces demobilized--millions repatriated

3. International Tribunal convened for "War Trials"


B. Democratization: MacArthur's Constitution Nov. 1946 promulgated

        1. Chapter One, Article 1
 

a. Emperor=symbol of state and unity of the people   b. the Japanese people are sovereign (shuken) 2. Chapter 2, Article 9: War renounced as a sovereign right   3. Chapter Three, Articles 10-40: The Japanese "Bill of Rights"
  a. Article 13--rights to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness

b. Article 14--equality under the law no discrimination due to race, creed, sex, social status, social origin

c. Article 15--universal adult suffrage (women too)

d. Article 19-20--freedom of thought, conscience, & religion

e. Articles 26-29: rights to work, standard wages, unions

f. Article 31-40--due process of law before life & liberty deprived; no warrant, no arrest; speedy trial
 

4. Chapter Four: The Diet
  a. highest organ of state power

b. sole law-making organ of state
 

5. Chapter Five: The Cabinet
  a. executive power--P.M. elected by Diet members

b. P.M. appoints Ministers of State (the cabinet)
 

6. Chapter Six: Judiciary:Supreme Court & lesser courts

7. Chapter Ten: Constitution
 

a. identified as "the supreme law of the land"

b. Emperor, Ministers, Diet must uphold it
 

C. Economic Reforms
  1. Land Reform Bill (October 21, 1946)
  a. 1.8-12 hectacres (4.4-29.6 acres) to farmers

b. farmers allowed to own and rent 0.5-4 hectacres (1.2-9.9 acres) in their villages

c. cultivator owned land increased from 56.5% 1945 to 88.9% 1947
 

2. Labor Union Act (December 1945)

3. Labor Relations Adjustment Act (September 1946)

4. Labor Standards Act (April 1947)

5. zaibatsu dissolved via Anti-Monopoly Law (1947)

6. Fair Trade Commission established
 

III. The Reverse Course of the Occupation
  A. post-WWII cold war--Eastern European communism
  1. "Iron Curtain" speech by Winston Churchill (1946)

2. 1949 Mao proclaimed PRC

3. Korean War June 25, 1950-July 1953


B. Policy Reversals
 

1. switch from anti-militarism to anti-communism

2. lstrikes disallowed\zaibatsu partly revived as keiretsu

 
IV. San Francisco Peace Conference (Sept. 1951)
  A. Nonpunitive, nonrestrictive--51 nations signed

B. USSR not a participant
 

1. 1956 normalization of relations with USSR

2. Northern Territories off Hokkaido disputed

a. Kunashiri

b. Etorofu

c. Shikotan

d. Habomai
 

C. Korea/Taiwan/Pescadores/Kurils/South Sakhalin/Spratley Islands
        abandonned, but no final disposition of them made

D. Ryûkyû and Bônin Islands controlled by U.S. as U.N. trusteeship

E. Rights in China renounced
 

1. agreement with KMT Nationalists

2. no recognition of PRC, nor treaty with it

 
F. Right to individual and collective defense affirmed
    V. U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty (Sept. 8, 1951)--implemented April 28, 1952 A. John Foster Dulles (U.S. negotiator) and Yoshida Shigeru

B. U.S. forces stationed in Japan to maintain international peace

  C. no bases granted to other nations w/o U.S. approval