The Mongol Empire and the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
I. The Mongol Empire

   A. Eurasion span, but China focused

        1. Genghis Khan (aka Temujin, 1167-1227)

             a. Mongol conquest of north China

             b. 1215 Jurchen capital, Zhongdu (Beijing), fell

             c. Hebei, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong had fallen by 1227

             d. 1234 Jurchen rule eliminated, Mongol established

         2. Kublai Khan (r. 1260-1294)--grandson of Genghis

              a. conquest of Southern Song completed

              b. Mongol capital moved from Karakorum to Beijing

              c. Kublai styled himself an emperor rather than khaghan (Khan)

              d. 1272 Chinese dynastic title "Yuan" meaning "origin" adopted

     B. Mongol Imperial Government

          1. Civil service examination system

               a. none held during Kublai's reign

               b. Emperor Renzong (r. 1311-1320) resumed them

               c. quotas continued to ensure Mongol dominance

               d. Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism the official curriculum

           2. Politics of Language

               a. Emperor Renzong the first emperor to speak Chinese

               b. Mongol politics discussed in Mongolian

               c. high level documents in Mongolian, though translated into Chinese

           3. Social, Economic, Cultural Policies

II. End of the Yuan Dynasty

    A. Court intrigue, factionalism, & assassination chronic problems

    B. Ethnically Chinese subjects viewed Mongols as "barbarians"

    C. White Lotus Rebellion broke out in 1351

          1. Zhu Yuanzhang, rebel leader of peasant origins, rose to power

          2. Last Mongol emperor, Shundi, fled Beijing in 1368

          3. Ming established