China Under the Manchus: The Qing Dynasty, 1644-1912
I. Origins of Qing Rule

   A. Decline of Ming (1368-1644)

        1. Internal corruption, weakness

        2. External threats: Hideyoshi's Invasions

        3. Rise of Manchu power to the northeast

             a. Nurhaci (1559-1626) banner system

             b. Abahai (d. 1643) coined "Qing" (water radical), not Jin

                  i. "Ming" (moon and sun) suggested "fire" element

                  ii. Manchu familiarity with "five agents" evident

   B. Li Zicheng's (1605-45) Rebellion

        1. 1644 Li Zicheng's forces seized Beijing

        2. Manchus asked in to assist in defense

II. Aspects of Early Manchu Power

    A. Strong Imperial Rule

          1. Emperor Shunzhi claimed tianming

           2. Kangxi (r. 1661-1722) consolidated Qing power

                a. southern China effectively brought under control

                b. Confucianism promoted, "sage-emperor" mystique 

                c. Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) with Czarist Russia concluded

                d. Tibet dominated, new Dalai Lama appointed

                e. "Rites Controversy" decided

           3. Yongzheng (r. 1722-36) "secret memorial system"

           4. Qianlong (r. 1736-99)

                a. China at its pinnacle in early 18th century

                     i. Xinjiang "New Territories" incorporated

                     ii. Four Treasuries of Chinese Literature compiled

                     iii. population had tripled by 1790, to 300 million

                b. trade problems with Britain crystalizing

    B. Dyarchic structure 

          1. Manchu -- Chinese tensions throughout

           2. Chinese queue required of men

    C. Chinese opposition driven southward

III. Trade Problems with the West

     A. Portuguese first established contact, 1514

          1. Macao emerged as of 1557 as center of Portuguese settlement

           2. Macao later developed as European center of trade

      B. Qing Foreign Relations with the West

           1. Tribute System Unacceptable to post-industrial revolution Westerners

           2. Canton System initiated in Guangdong to manage relations

           3. British tea, silk, porcelan trade

               a. British trade deficits in tea 

                    i. Macartney Mission of 1793---Qianlong's Reply

                    ii. Amherst Mission of 1816

               b. Triangular trade between India, China, Britain

                    i. deficits corrected by opium exports

                    ii. early Qing tolerance, later aggressive opposition to the opium trade