REPRISE DE GRAMMAIRE

LES VERBES RÉFLÉCHIS

In reflexive verbs, the action of the verb is reflected back upon the subject. This reflexive action is indicated by the use of a reflexive pronoun.

Here are some common reflexive verbs:
 
 
s’amuser 
 
to have a good time 
(to amuse oneself)
se marier  to get married
se coucher  to go to bed 
(to put oneself to bed) 
se méfier de  to distrust
se détendre  to relax 
(to unwind oneself)
se mettre à to start, to begin 
(to put oneself to a task)
s’en aller  to go away, to leave  se moquer de to make fun of, to mock
s’endormir  to fall asleep se promener to take a walk
s’énerver  to become irritable se reposer to rest (oneself)
se fier à  to trust se réveiller to wake (oneself) up
s’habiller  to get dressed 
(to dress oneself) 
se sauver  to run away 
(to save oneself) 
s’habiter à to  to get used  se suicider to kill oneself 
se laver  to wash (oneself)  se taire to shut (oneself) up, 
to be quiet 
se lever  to get (oneself) up  se tromper to be mistaken
 
 
 Ils se promenaient en bavardant.
 Ils se sentaient les maîtres du monde.
 Ils se mettaient à courir.
 Ils se laissaient pénétrer dans la chaleur ambiante.
 Tout s’écroule.
 

Les pronoms réfléchis

The reflexive pronouns are me, te, se, nous, vous.  They agree in number and person with the subject.

Here is the present tense of a typical reflexive verb.

se reposer
 
je me repose  nous nous reposons
tu te reposes vous vous reposez 
il se repose 
elle se repose 
on se repose 
ils se reposent 
elles se reposent 
 
 
 
Here is the passé composé of the same reflexive verb.
se reposer
 
je me suis reposé(e) nous nous sommes reposé(e)s 
tu t’es reposé(e)  vous vous êtes reposé(e)(s) 
il s’est reposé 
elle s’est reposée 
on s’est reposé
ils se sont reposés 
elles se sont reposées 
 
In questions and negative sentences, place reflexive pronouns following the same rules as for object pronouns.  This is also the case in the negative imperative.

The pronouns me, te, and se become m’, t’, s’ before a verb beginning with a vowel or a silent h.

In infinitive constructions, the reflexive pronouns agree with the subject.

 Ile hésitaient à se lever de table.

In the affirmative imperative, place the reflexive pronouns after the verb and connect them to the verb with a hyphen.

Reflexive pronouns are either direct or indirect, depending on whether the verb takes a direct or indirect object.

   

Les Verbes réciproques

When the subjects act on each other, that action is reciprocal. Reciprocal verbs are formed in the same manner as reflexive verbs. Reciprocal verbs are always in the plural.

 Ils se regardaienet en souriant des les glaces des devantures.

Since reflexive and reciprocal verbs are identical in form, confusion sometimes arises. In order to clarify the meaning of the sentence, the expressions l’un(e) l’autre and les un(e)s les autres are added after reciprocal verbs.

When a reciprocal verb requires a preposition, the preposition is placed between the two parts of l’un(e) l’autre or les un(e)s les autres, for example, l’un avec l’autre, les uns derrière les autres.